1634: Maryland is founded as a proprietary colony by English nobleman Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, as a refuge for English Catholics.
1649: The Maryland Toleration Act is passed, granting religious freedom to all Christians and ensuring a degree of religious tolerance.
1694: The capital of Maryland is moved from St. Mary's City to Annapolis.
1765: Maryland takes a stand against the Stamp Act, one of the acts imposed by the British Parliament on the American colonies, by joining the boycott against British goods.
1776: Maryland adopts its first state constitution, severing ties with British rule and becoming an independent state.
1783: The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the American Revolutionary War and recognizing the United States as an independent nation. Maryland is one of the 13 original states.
1814: During the War of 1812, British forces attack Baltimore, but are repelled at Fort McHenry. This event inspires Francis Scott Key to write the poem that later becomes the U.S. national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner."
1861-1865: Maryland is a border state during the American Civil War, with divided loyalties between the Union and the Confederacy. Martial law is imposed in Baltimore due to pro-Confederate sympathies.
Late 19th century: Maryland experiences industrialization and urbanization, particularly in Baltimore, becoming a center for manufacturing and shipping.
1904: The Great Baltimore Fire destroys much of downtown Baltimore, but the city rebuilds and continues to grow.
Mid-20th century: Maryland becomes a hub for scientific research and development, with institutions such as the Johns Hopkins University and its affiliated medical institutions leading the way.
Present: Maryland is known for its diverse economy, including industries such as biotechnology, defense, healthcare, and tourism. It is home to historical sites such as the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis and the Chesapeake Bay.
This timeline provides a glimpse into the history of Maryland, from its founding as a haven for English Catholics to its development as a diverse and economically vibrant state. Maryland's contributions to religious freedom, its role in the American Revolution and the Civil War, and its ongoing significance in fields such as science and research have shaped its identity and made it a key state in American history.