State Antiquities Landmark in
Robertson County, Texas

The first oil well in the United States was drilled in Texas in 1859. The discovery of oil transformed the economy of the state and helped to make Texas one of the wealthiest states in the nation.
Robertson County, Texas, located in the southeastern part of the state, has a rich and diverse history dating back to the early 19th century. The county was named after Sterling C. Robertson, a prominent empresario, or land agent, who played a significant role in the colonization of the region. The area was originally inhabited by various Native American tribes, including the Caddo and the Bidai, prior to European settlement.

In 1837, the Texas Congress officially established Robertson County as one of the original counties of the Republic of Texas. During this time, the county experienced rapid growth with the influx of settlers from the United States, particularly from southern states such as Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. These settlers primarily relied on agriculture, with cotton becoming a major cash crop in the region.

The county also played a significant role in the Texas Revolution and the subsequent formation of the Republic of Texas. The Battle of San Jacinto, a decisive battle that secured Texas independence from Mexico, took place just outside the county's borders in April 1836. Several notable figures from Texas history, including Sam Houston, were also closely tied to Robertson County.

Over the years, Robertson County has continued to thrive, with the economy diversifying beyond agriculture. While farming and ranching still remain important industries, the county has also seen growth in manufacturing, healthcare, and tourism sectors. Today, Robertson County is known for its small towns, rural beauty, and historical sites, attracting visitors and residents alike with its charming Southern atmosphere and rich cultural heritage.

This timeline provides a glimpse into the major events and milestones that have shaped the history of Robertson County, Texas.

  • 1837: Robertson County is established from Milam County.
  • 1846: The first county seat, Springfield, is established.
  • 1854: The county seat is moved to Owensville.
  • 1870: The town of Calvert becomes the county seat.
  • 1873: The Houston and Texas Central Railway reaches Calvert.
  • 1890: The St. Louis Southwestern Railway reaches Hearne.
  • 1925: A portion of Robertson County is used to create Falls County.
  • 1942: Camp Hearne, a World War II prisoner-of-war camp, is established.
  • 1987: The Hearne Southern Pacific depot is added to the National Register of Historic Places.