Historical Markers in
Cattaraugus County, New York

1804-2004 1917 – 1918 Academy Hill Ahaz Allen Allegany State Park's Camp Allegany Allegany State Park's Fancher Cabin Allegany State Park's Oldest Cabin Allegany Veterans Memorial Bartlett House Cadiz Cadiz Cemetery Case Brothers Civilian Conservation Corps Dedicated to Those from the Salamanca Area Dow Library Early Bank Early School East Otto Union School East Otto Veterans Memorial Ellicottville Town Hall Fairgrounds Fire Observation Stations: / Fire Tower is Reborn First Frame House First Frame House First Settler Frank W. Higgins Franklinville Veterans Memorial From the Mountains of Afghanistan Grand Army of the Republic Hinman Valley Wetland Complex Historic Site - Home of Frank W. Higgins Honor Roll Honor Roll In Honor and Memory In Honor of All Veterans In Honor of PFC Albert "Dick" R. Boehmer In Memory of Our Dead Comrades In Memory of Those From Ellicottville Ischua Creek Jefferson Street Cemetery Leon Grange Leon United Methodist Church Major Adam Hoops Medora Ball Historical Museum Original Randolph Free Library Oscar F. Wilber Otto Township Roll Of Honor Outdoor Museum Peter Jones Peter T. Tenbroeck Plank Road House Prof. of Nature Randolph Revolutionary War Veterans Salem Welsh Church Seneca Oil Spring Site of First Wild Turkey Trap & Transfer Program Ski Jumping Stoddard Hollow Stone Tower Sweet Water Spring The School in the Forest The Settlement of Knapp Creek The Tornado / Forest Succession These Gates Erected by Salamanca This Historic Bell Town of Perrysburg Upper Cattaraugus Valley Veterans Memorial Village Hall War Memorial Weather Station Welcome to Thunder Rocks Welsh Settlement Women's Suffrage
The Empire State Building, which was completed in 1931, was built during the Great Depression and was funded entirely by private investors. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest building in the world.
Cattaraugus County, located in western New York, has a rich history dating back to its Native American roots. Prior to European settlement, the land was inhabited by the Seneca Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy. They cultivated the fertile land and established various settlements, including the village of Cattaraugus, from which the county derived its name.

European settlers arrived in the late 18th century, and conflicts with the Native American tribes, particularly during the American Revolution, shaped the early history of the county. The Sullivan Expedition of 1779, led by General John Sullivan, resulted in the destruction of several Native American communities, including those in Cattaraugus County. After the Revolutionary War, the land was opened for settlement, attracting pioneers from New England and Pennsylvania.

In 1808, Cattaraugus County was officially founded and organized. The county's economy initially relied on agriculture, with numerous farms and small businesses emerging. By the mid-19th century, sawmills and tanneries became prominent industries due to the region's abundant timber resources.

The Erie Railroad's arrival in the mid-1800s brought further development, connecting the county to larger markets and stimulating economic growth. Cattaraugus County also played a role in the Underground Railroad, providing a route to freedom for enslaved individuals seeking refuge. Today, the county is known for its diverse landscape, historical landmarks, and being home to the Seneca Nation's Allegany Reservation.

This timeline provides a concise overview of the key events in the history of Cattaraugus County, New York.

  • 1808: Cattaraugus County is established as a county in the state of New York.
  • 1812: The first county courthouse is built in Ellicottville.
  • 1817: The Seneca Nation cedes a large portion of their land to the State of New York.
  • 1831: The town of Olean is incorporated.
  • 1836: The Allegany Indian Reservation is established.
  • 1851: The Buffalo and New York City Railroad is completed, connecting the county to major cities.
  • 1867: The village of Salamanca is incorporated.
  • 1880: The oil boom begins in the county, leading to economic growth.
  • 1908: The Kinzua Dam is completed on the Allegheny River.
  • 1954: The Seneca Allegany Casino opens, becoming a major attraction.
  • 1988: The Ohi:yo' Spa at the Seneca Allegany Resort & Casino opens.