New Mexico was one of the last territories to become a state, gaining statehood in 1912. Before that, it had been part of the Spanish Empire, Mexico, and the United States Territory of New Mexico.
Guadalupe County, located in the state of New Mexico, has a rich history that dates back thousands of years. Before the arrival of Europeans, the region was home to various Native American tribes, including the Apache and Comanche. These tribes roamed the area, utilizing the natural resources for sustenance and trade.

In the 18th century, Spanish explorers and settlers arrived in the region, establishing missions and ranches. The Guadalupe Mission, founded in 1776, played a significant role in the development of the county. It served as a central hub for trade and agriculture, promoting economic growth and development in the area.

During the Mexican-American War in the mid-19th century, the region came under American control. Guadalupe County was officially established in 1891, named after the Our Lady of Guadalupe Mission. The county seat was initially established in Puerto de Luna but moved to Santa Rosa in 1903. The Santa Fe Railroad's arrival in the county further enhanced its growth and connectivity with other parts of New Mexico.

In the early 20th century, Guadalupe County experienced a boom in its agricultural, ranching, and mining industries. However, like many other rural areas, it faced challenges during the Great Depression and Dust Bowl era. The county's economy saw a gradual recovery in the post-war years, with the development of irrigation projects and the growth of the tourism industry.

Today, Guadalupe County remains an important part of New Mexico's landscape. Its diverse cultural heritage, natural beauty, and historical sites continue to attract visitors and contribute to the local economy. The county's rich history is preserved through various museums, historic landmarks, and ongoing efforts to honor and celebrate its past.

This timeline provides a condensed summary of the historical journey of Guadalupe County, New Mexico.

  • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, resulting in the cession of the American Southwest to the United States, including present-day Guadalupe County.
  • 1852 - Guadalupe County is established as one of the original nine counties of the New Mexico Territory.
  • 1871 - The county seat is established in Puerto de Luna.
  • 1905 - The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad reaches Santa Rosa, bringing increased economic activity to the area.
  • 1907 - Santa Rosa becomes the new county seat, replacing Puerto de Luna.
  • 1920s - The Great Depression leads to a decline in population and economic activity in Guadalupe County.
  • 1940s - The establishment of Santa Rosa Air Base during World War II brings a temporary boost to the local economy.
  • 1980s - The development of Interstate 40 through the county leads to increased tourism and economic opportunities.
  • 1993 - The iconic Blue Hole, a popular scuba diving destination, is designated as a natural landmark.