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The largest land battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Chickamauga, took place in Georgia in 1863. Over 34,000 Union and Confederate soldiers were killed, wounded, or missing in the battle.
Effingham County, located in the southeastern part of Georgia, has a rich history dating back thousands of years. The area was originally inhabited by Native American tribes such as the Creek and Yuchi. European exploration began in the 16th century, with Spanish and French settlers attempting to establish colonies in the region. However, it wasn't until the 18th century that Effingham County began to develop as a significant settlement.

In the mid-1730s, several groups of Scottish Highlanders, known as the Darien Colony, migrated to the area and established the town of New Inverness. These settlers brought their unique culture and agricultural expertise, helping to shape the early economy of the region. However, conflicts with Native American tribes and the outbreak of the Revolutionary War halted the growth of Effingham County.

After the war, Effingham County experienced a period of rebuilding and expansion. New settlers arrived, primarily from the Carolinas and Virginia, attracted by the fertile farmland and opportunities for trade along the Savannah River. The formation of Springfield as the county seat in 1799 further signaled the county's progress.

Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, Effingham County continued to develop its agricultural industry, with cotton becoming a major crop. The construction of railroads in the late 1800s further stimulated growth, facilitating the movement of goods and people and contributing to the county's economic prosperity.

Today, Effingham County is a thriving community with a mix of agricultural, industrial, and residential areas. It has a diverse population and boasts several historic sites, including the Effingham Museum and Living History Site, which preserves and showcases the county's rich heritage. Effingham County's history serves as a reminder of its resilience and the contributions of its early settlers in shaping the county's identity.

This timeline provides a concise overview of the key events in the history of Effingham County, Georgia.

  • 1733 - General James Edward Oglethorpe founds the colony of Georgia, including what is now Effingham County.
  • 1736 - The first European settlers arrive in the area that would become Effingham County.
  • 1777 - Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution.
  • 1780 - Revolutionary War skirmishes occur in the county, including the Battle of Brier Creek.
  • 1793 - Effingham County is officially established, named after Lord Effingham, a British general who supported the American colonies during the Revolutionary War.
  • 1832 - The Georgia Central Railroad begins operations, contributing to the county's economic growth.
  • 1861-1865 - Effingham County residents serve in the Confederate Army during the Civil War.
  • 1877 - The county courthouse is destroyed by fire, leading to the construction of a new one in Springfield.
  • 1907 - The Guyton and Marlow Railway is completed, connecting Effingham County to nearby areas.
  • 1940s-1950s - The county experiences economic growth due to industrialization and the construction of military bases.
  • 2000 - The population of Effingham County exceeds 37,000, marking significant growth compared to previous decades.